I found these activities helpful. I actually didn’t mind that there was elements that we had to speak because it got me into the habit of speaking and also practicing things that I need to work on. I also thought it was good that we analysed our speech performance in order to improve. I thoroughly enjoyed watching the film The King’s Speech as it was a movie I wouldn’t watch usually but was very interesting and included ways of speaking and ways of thinking about speaking that I have not thought of before.
The only negative is that each blog posts is extremely time consuming and some activities I found difficult due to the wording on the task sheets.
I would like to first begin with an acknowledgement of country. I would like to respectfully acknowledge the traditional owners of the land on which we walk and elders both past and present as well as our emerging leaders of tomorrow and thank them for their wisdom and guidance as we walk in their footsteps. We also acknowledge and celebrate the continuation of a living culture that has a unique role in this great country.
I stand before you today Mr. Speaker and members of parliament in Australia’s senate chamber because I want to close the health gap for the Aboriginal and Torres Strait of our indigenous brothers and sisters, including those who are incarcerated.
Information gathered by the Australian Bureau of Statistics, shows that the life expectancy of indigenous men is 11.5 years lower than for non-indigenous men, while life expectancy of indigenous women is 9.7 years lower than for non-indigenous women, these figures are even lower for Indigenous Australians who are incarcerated. In addition to this, studies conducted by the United Nations revealed that Aboriginal Australians have the worst life expectancy rates of any indigenous population in the world. Life expectancy is used as the primary indicator to show the wellbeing and social equity of a certain group, and it is quite clear by these figures Mr Speaker that there are vast inequalities between indigenous and non-indigenous Australians, and something must be done. We can no longer sit by and let our indigenous people live like this.
I draw to your attention the heartbreaking story of Ms. Dhu. Ms Dhu, whose first name cannot be revealed due to cultural reasons, was just 22 when she died in police custody. It is reported that Ms. Dhu complained multiple times of severe rib pain, and when taken to hospital, her claims were dismissed and she was discharged back into police custody. Her cries went unheard, and she was finally carried out of her cell semi-conscious, taken again to hospital where she was tragically pronounced dead, after suffering from a severe infection. She is just one of over 340 Indigenous Australians to die in custody since the royal commission into such deaths handed down its final report in 1991.
According to a report conducted by law firm Clayton Utz, The bulk of the commission’s 339 recommendations remain unimplemented or only partially implemented.
This activity was effective as it made me sit down and break down what I will be writing about in my maiden speech.
|Acknowledgement of Country||Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander flag|
|Talking about the inequality for Indigenous Australians (healthcare)||Image of indigenous people|
|Statistics about life span etc.||Graphs and tables illustrating this|
|More statistics about indigenous health||Graphs and tables illustrating this|
|Personal story- Ms. Dhu||Image of Ms. Dhu|
|How deaths like hers impact communities||Image of her family protesting|
|Importance of better health care for indigenous people||Image of indigenous people|
|Talk about the Royal Commission||image of royal commission crest and highlighted parts of inquest|
|Why has nothing changed (more facts)||Facts|
|What can we take from the royal commission to implement||Image of indigenous people|
|How can the Australian government achieve equality between non-indigenous and indigenous Australian’s (in regards to health care)||Image of indigenous people|
The Project is a really good example of a chat-based program. It follows all the elements discussed by Tolson (1991). The show features wit and humour, is personal and the risk of transgression underlies talk (Tolson, 1991). The line up of their show consists of a balance of serious news stories (suicide, terrorism), light-hearted and heart warming stories (puppies etc.) and breaking news. As each topic is discussed by the panel it becomes more personable and audiences watching at home are made to feel like they are in a discussion with family and friends about the topic. Each panel members fills a role in the show, with Waleed being the intellectual, Peter being the ‘funny guy’ that lightens the mood and Carrie and Lisa, to draw the conversation back into focus.
According to Clayman (1990) there are two ways to report on speech: verbatim and paraphrased statements. Both methods allows for the journalist to influence the views the reader has on the speaker. Being selective with which quotes are used and what information is given allows the journalist to impact the way the audience sees a certain person or topic. Journalists use particular language techniques in order to present the speaker in either a negative or positive light in their story (Clayman, 1990).
Clayman, S. (1990). From talk to text: newspaper accounts of reporter-source interactions. Media, Culture, and Society 12(1), 79-104. Retrieved from http://www.sscnet.ucla.edu/soc/faculty/clayman/Site/Publications_files/Clayman%201990%20Talk_to_Text.pdf
Purpose- The purpose of this speech is to raise a serious issue in a public domain.
Audience- Fellow members of parliament and also constituents. Maiden speeches are also recorded so the media is also an audience.
Information- The information included in the maiden speech will align with the speakers views on key electorate issues.
Benefits- To keep political party in power.
Objections- It is important that extensive research is done on the topic discussed in order to ensure the speaker is knowledgable on attitudes of their local community, and are able to answer any questions or respond to any arguments that may arise.
Context- The context is a political speech which uses issues that affect Australians.
Similarities and Differences between Formal and Impromptu Speeches
Both types of speeches have three general purposes: to inform, to entertain and to persuade.
A formal speech is pre-written and rehearsed, in order to ensure the message is delivered to the audience clearly and concisely. The fact that the speaker has to follow a speech prevents them from going off on tangents and babbling. Impromptu speeches are spur of the moment, and are delivered to the audience with little or no preparation beforehand. These types of speeches can be successful due to the fact that they are often shorter than a formal speech, which can make it easier to keep the attention of the audience. However, sometimes speeches with no set form can lack focus, and quickly become more of a ramble rather than a speech. Impromptu speeches are done is slightly more casual settings like workplaces, weddings and birthday parties. Whereas formal speeches are seen more commonly at official events such as keynotes speaking events.
Regardless of whether a formal or impromptu speech is being performed, it is necessary that the speaker use techniques in order to ensure the effectiveness of the speech. Being mindful of posture, body language, and performative features such as pacing, pausing and emphasis is vital in order to engage the audience and perform a successful speech.
Ames, K. (2018). Lesson 6: Genres of Speech – Corporate. Presentation, CQU.
I’m generally a quite awkward person and try to avoid talking to people as much as possible but when I do have to speak to people I begin conversation with “Hi, how are you” or “Hey what’s up” depending on who I am speaking to. Conversation is a lot more casual when I am speaking to peers but when I am in a professional setting (work, speaking to older people) my choice of words are more formal. I use humour a lot in conversation in order to keep it light and breezy and usually end with “Ok cya later”.
In the entertainment interview, the two interviewees were introduced as ‘Benedict Cumberbatch and Tom Holland, stars of Avengers: Infinity War‘. A number of questions were asked about the movie (how many heroes are in the film?, what is it like being apart of a movie that is set to be the biggest film in history?), but there were also some light-hearted more personal questions such as who had the biggest trailer on set. There was no need for conflict management in this interview as all topics covered were more so surface questions and mostly surrounded the new film in which they both star. Due to the casual nature of the interview, humour was evident throughout, including when the interviewee asks about an error Tom Holland made in a previous interview, in which when he was asked which star of the film would be most suited to go on Rupaul’s Drag Race. Holland replied with “Robert Downey Jnr because he has great cars” unaware of the fact Rupaul’s Drag Race is actually a competition show about drag queens. He was able to acknowledge his error whilst poking fun at himself.
In the news interview, the interviewee Kathryn Chee was introduced as ‘Kathryn Chee, Lindt Cafe worker who was spared in the Sydney siege’. She was asked by the interviewer to describe what she was doing when she found out that the siege was unfolding and how she felt when she first saw images of this. To manage conflict I believe that the interviewer did not attempt to get too personal with the questions so that miss Chee was not made to feel uncomfortable and upset as this was already a sensitive time for her. The interview concluded after Chee described the close-knit type of place that Lindt Cafe is.
Both interviews were informative, but were conducted in different ways. Entertainment interviews are often less professional and contain humourous elements and light-hearted anecdotes. News interviews however are more serious, usually speaking about a somber subject. The questions asked and the way they are asked reflect this need to show respect.
After reading the set course resource, I found that there were two key points. These are contrasts and lists.
The contrast (or antithesis) is rhetorical device. in speaking, it allows a negative statement to be counterbalanced by a positive one,
Lists are comprised of three parts, both in speeches and normal conversation. In conversation, lists are often associated with emphasis, whereas in speeches they combine emphasis (by repetition) and projectability.
Heritage, J., & Clayman, S. (2011). Talk in Action (pp. 263-269). Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons.
I learnt a lot from my last attempt at reading this news script. After listening to the professional audio clip of this news script, I tried to implement the skills that were used by the professional reader. I found she emphasised numbers, important words and peoples names in her reading. I attempted to also do this when I was reading. I also used brief pauses in order to catch my breath and also prevent myself from muddling words up.
Film Review of The King’s Speech
In the film, Colin Firth plays the role of King George XI or ‘Bertie’ as he is known. His role playing King George sees him embody a character who has a severe speech impediment and struggles deeply to perform even the most basic speeches. For a leader, being unable to perform a successful speech could mean having his whole country turn against him. Aware of this, he turns to Lionel Logue, a free lance speech therapist.
Logue uses a number of techniques in order to help Bertie overcome his stutter and fear of public speaking. In the film, Logue uses a number of techniques including tongue twisters, exercises to improve jaw movement and diaphragmatic capacity and reading Shakespeare whilst listening to classical music in order to help Bertie with his speech impediment. The film highlights the fact that the way in which a speech is delivered is much more important than the actual message of the speech. Using these techniques allowed Bertie to overcome his psychological issues and perform a successful speech.
Aristotle’s rhetorical appeals are known by the names of Ethos, Pathos and Logos. Each are used as ways to convince and persuade the audience to believe a particular point of view.
Ethos– Ethos is a Greek word meaning character. It is used to describe the sentiment, moral nature or guiding beliefs of a particular group, person or institution (Collins Dictionary, 2018).
Pathos– Pathos is defined as the power of a person, situation or piece of art to evoke feelings of sadness, sympathy and compassion (Cambridge English Dictionary, 2018).
Logos– Logos is defined as the logic behind an argument. It is using logical arguments and supportive evidence in order to persuade the audience (lYour Dictionary, 2018).
These three rhetorical appeals are used frequently in speeches and advertisements. Ethos is the use of a speakers own personal character to get his/her message across. Pathos is putting the audience into a certain frame of mind. Logos is the proof, provided by the words of the speech itself (Your Dictionary, 2018).
“Persuasion is achieved by the speaker’s personal character when the speech is so spoken as to make us think him credible.” (Aristotle)
Ethos definition and meaning | Collins English Dictionary. (2018). Retrieved from https://www.collinsdictionary.com/dictionary/english/ethos
Pathos Meaning in the Cambridge English Dictionary. (2018). Retrieved from https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/pathos
Examples of Ethos, Logos, and Pathos. (2018). Retrieved from http://examples.yourdictionary.com/examples-of-ethos-logos-and-pathos.html
There are a number of elements that I believe make up a professional voice. When speaking, it is important that the speaker communicate with enthusiasm and use a wide variety of vocal styles. This allows the speaker to keep the audience interested. The tone of voice used should match the context of the speech, for example, when speaking about an emotional topic the tone and expression should reflect this (NYEE, 2018). It is also important to include meaningful pauses within the speech in order to give the audience a chance to digest what the speaker has said (“Presentation Skills – Develop Vocal Skills to Enhance Your Presentation”, 2018). A person who can use these skills within their speaking is a successful professional speaker.
What Makes a Great Speech?
I believe a great speech is one that truly connects with it’s audience, no matter what the subject matter. The speaker must be passionate about what ever they are speaking about, and that will shine through in their speech. This can be seen in the youtube video ‘Top 10 Famous Speeches’. Each speaker is incredibly passionate and enthralls their audience in whichever subject they are speaking about. They also employ the skills aforementioned. Using a variety of vocal styles, meaningful pauses and ensuring their tone and expression matches the subject being spoken about is what I believe makes a great speech.
Reflection of News Reader Script
In the audio clip, the news reader emphasises numbers and important words including but not limited to: Federal Government, Reserve Bank and Labor Government. She does this to show the power of these words and their importance.She also places emphasis on names of people. She is much better at pausing, emphasising words and ensuring breathing within her speech than I was when I read this script.
Presentation Skills – Develop Vocal Skills to Enhance Your Presentation. (2018). Retrieved from http://www.skillstudio.co.uk/personal-coach/presentation-skills-vocal-impact-1.htm
Voice Presentation Skills – Public Speaking Tips – NYEE. (2018). Retrieved from http://www.nyee.edu/patient-care/otolaryngology/voice-swallowing/therapy/public-speaking-tips